Validating a dance specific screening test for balance

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This implied a stepwise description of the 1) definitions and exploration throughout the theoretical constructs of balance and adaptability, followed by the 2) development of test items which lead to the creation of the final test protocol.

Despite the widespread use of the term balance, no unanimous consensus exists on its definition.

The visuomotor reaction time on a behavioural level considers the time needed from start to end-point of the VMT.

In detail, this pathway includes visual perception, visual processing, visuomotor transformation and motor execution time [].

In the context of adaptability, it was more relevant to consider the visuomotor reaction time on the behavioural level as the time needed to select and execute the appropriate motor response in a changing environment.

Previous research showed that together with the reaction time and pre-motor time as outcomes for speed of signal processing, accuracy can be used as an outcome measure of adequate signal processing and learning [].

To induce cognitive load within the visuomotor task, colours were fixed to a corresponding axis, and both the order of the visual stimuli as the interstimulus time were randomised to integrate environmental perception and decision-making.

Recently, several systematic reviews and clinical commentaries emerged regarding the clinimetric value of clinician-friendly lower extremity functional performance tests, and their associations with injury [], these reviews showed that balance tests are currently underrepresented, accounting for only 1 functional balance test within the functional testing repertoire of 14 tests.

tennis, football) low, given that static tests neglect the importance of balance in its inherent relation with being able to react to a changing environment.

star excursion balance test, Y-balance test) or by counting balance errors when performing a balance test (e.g. Both reach distance and balance errors have been proven to be reliable and valid outcome measures [].

Current balance tests aim to measure pre-planned motor responses and focus on the neuromuscular system which uses information from the somatosensory and vestibular system (e.g. However, this neglects the importance of balance in its relevant context of sports performance or injury prevention.

Therefore, the goal of this paper was to develop a clinician-friendly test that respects these contextual interactions and to describe the test protocol of an adapted Y-balance test that includes environmental perception and decision-making.

Within the theoretical construct of balance and adaptability, balance errors were selected as outcome measures for balance ability and, visuomotor reaction time and accuracy are selected as outcome measures for adaptability.

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